Flora

Over 1700 species of plants have been recorded on Olympus representing 25% of all Greek flora4. Of these, more than 160 plant taxa either belong to a protected status, are rare or endemics5. The stenoendemic chasmophyte Jancaea heldreichii is of particular interest to scientists, as it constitutes a floral relic of the Tertiary period and is the only species in its genus. It grows primarily on large and inaccessible rocks, usually in proximity to watercourses. Olympus is characterized by particularly high levels of endemism, as many endemic taxa of Olympus, Greece and the Balkans are found there. Specifically, 26 local endemic species have been recorded on Mount Olympus to date. These are essentially plants that are found only on Olympus and nowhere else in the world. Furthermore, the area is home to species protected under Annexes IIb and IVc of the European Directive 92/43/EEC "On the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora".

Gallery

Endemic plants of Olympus and species protected under EU Directive 92/43/ΕEC

Α/ΑSPECIESPROTECTION STATUS
1Achillea ambrosiacaEndemic of Olympus
2Alyssum handeliiEndemic of Olympus
3Artemisia umbelliformis subsp. erianthaAnnex V
4Asperula muscosaEndemic of Olympus
5Aubrieta thessalaEndemic of Olympus
6Campanula oreadumEndemic of Olympus
7Centaurea incompletaEndemic of Olympus
8Centaurea litochoreaEndemic of Olympus
9Cerastium theophrastiEndemic of Olympus
10Brassica nivalis subsp. nivalisEndemic of Olympus
11Corydalis blanda subsp. olympicaEndemic of Olympus
12Erysimum olympicumEndemic of Olympus
13Festuca olympicaEndemic of Olympus
14Genista sakellariadisEndemic of Olympus
15Hieracium gracilifurcumEndemic of Olympus
16Hieracium graecum subsp. szilyanumEndemic of Olympus
17Jancaea heldreichiiAnnex ΙV, Endemic of Olympus
18Ligusticum olympicumEndemic of Olympus
19Melampyrum ciliatumEndemic of Olympus
20Minuartia setacea subsp. olympicaEndemic of Olympus
21Potentilla deorumEndemic of Olympus
22Ruscus aculeatusAnnex ΙV
23Silene oliganthaEndemic of Olympus
24Stachys recta subsp. olympicaEndemic of Olympus
25Taraxacum deorumEndemic of Olympus
26Taraxacum thessalicumEndemic of Olympus
27Viola delphinanthaAnnex ΙΙ
28Viola pseudograecaEndemic of Olympus
29Viola striis-notataEndemic of Olympus
Explanatory notes

a Priority habitats / Species: Natural habitats and species that are in danger of disappearance  for the conservation of which the Community has particular responsibility in view of the proportion of their natural range which falls within its territory. They are denoted by an asterisk (*) in Annexes I and II and special measures apply to them.

b Annex I Habitat types of EU Habitat’s Directive 92/43/EEC: Natural habitat types of community interest whose conservation requires the designation of special areas of conservation.

c Annex II Species of EU Habitat’s Directive 92/43/EEC: Animal and plant species of community interest whose conservation requires the designation of special areas of conservation.

d Annex IV Species of EU Habitat’s Directive 92/43/EEC: Animal and plant species of community interest in need of strict protection.

e Annex Ι species of EU Wild Bird’s Directive 2009/147/ΕEC: Species that are subject to special conservation measures concerning their habitat in order to ensure their survival and reproduction in their area of distribution.

References

1 «Specialized Environmental Study of Olympus National Park» (2010). Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change, Dept. of Environmental Planning, Division for the Management of the Natural Environment.

2 Tsitsoni Th., Fotiadis G., ELKE-AUTH (2015). «Surveillance and evaluation of the conservation status of Habitat Types of European Community Interest in the area of jurisdiction of Olympus National Park Management Agency». Phase D’. ONPMA, RDP Macedonia-Thrace 2007-2013.

3 Council Directive 92/43/EEC “On the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora”.

4  Strid, A. (1980). Wild Flowers of Mount Olympus. Goulandri Natural History Museum, Athens.

5 Tsitsoni Th., Fotiadis G., Tsitinis G., ELKE-AUTH (2015). «Surveillance and evaluation of the conservation status of Plant species of European Community Interest in the area of jurisdiction of Olympus National Park Management Agency». Phase D’. ONPMA, RDP Macedonia-Thrace 2007-2013.

6 Sokos, Ch., Birtsas P., Hatzinikos E., Bontzorlos V., Papaspyropoulos, Κ., et al., TECHNOOMOIOSTASI-YLORIKI-LOUVITAKIS (2015). «Surveillance and evaluation of the conservation status of Mammals of European Community Interest in the area of jurisdiction of Olympus National Park Management Agency». Phase D’. ONPMA, RDP Macedonia-Thrace 2007-2013.

7 Olympus National Park Management Agency (2017). Technical Report 2016 on the Monitoring of Environmental Parameters, Litochoro.

8 Olympus National Park Management Agency (2016). Technical Report 2015 on the Monitoring of Environmental Parameters, Litochoro.

9 Legakis, A. & Maragou, P. (2009). The Red Book of Endangered Animals of Greece. Hellenic Zoological Society, Athens.

10 Bousbouras, D. & YETOS Ο.Ε. (2015). «Surveillance and evaluation of the conservation status of Birds of European Community Interest in the area of jurisdiction of Olympus National Park Management Agency».  Phase D’. ONPMA, RDP Macedonia-Thrace 2007-2013.

11 Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 30 November 2009 “On the Conservation of Wild Birds”.

12 Ioannidis I., Papamichail G., GEOANALYSIS Α.Ε. (2015) «Surveillance and evaluation of the conservation status of Amphibians & Reptiles of European Community Interest in the area of jurisdiction of Olympus National Park Management Agency». Phase D’. ONPMA, RDP Macedonia-Thrace 2007-2013.

13 Pamperis, L. (2009).  The Butterflies of Greece. 2nd edition, PAMPERI & ΚΟΑΝ publishers, Athens. Website www.pamperis.gr for updates on the book.

14 Avtzis D., Kaltsas D., TECHNOOMOIOSTASI-YLORIKI-LOUVITAKIS (2015) «Surveillance and evaluation of the conservation status of Invertebrates of European Community Interest in the area of jurisdiction of Olympus National Park Management Agency». Phase D’. ONPMA, RDP Macedonia-Thrace 2007-2013.

15 Presidential Decree 67/1981 (Hellenic Government Gazette No. 23 Α’/30-1-1981) “On the protection of native flora and wild fauna and the procedures for the coordination and control of their research”.

16 Heath, J. (1981) Threatened Rhopalocera (butterflies) of Europe. Council of Europe.

17 Tolmann, T. & Lewington, R. (2008). Collins Butterfly Guide: The Most Complete Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe. 3rd Edition, HarperCollins UK.

18 Speight M.C.D. (1989). Saproxylic invertebrates and their conservation. Council of Europe.