Avifauna

Historically, around 150 species of birds have been recorded in the wider area of Olympus. According to the results of the program "Surveillance and assessment of the conservation status of Bird species of community interest in the jurisdiction area of Olympus National Park Management Agency"10, in the last years 135 species either inhabit or pass through the region.

Birds of prey find shelter on the steep rocky mountain slopes, including eagles (Circaetus gallicus, Aquila chrysaetos), buzzards (Buteo buteo, Pernis apivorus), hawks (Accipiter brevipes, Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falcon naumanni, Falco tinnunculus), and falcons (Falco eleonorae, Falco peregrinus). Alpine specialists such as the impressive wallcreaper (Tichodroma muraria), the alpine accentor (Prunella collaris), the horned lark (Eremophila alpestris) and the alpine chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus) live in the alpine meadows, rocks and screes, and are adapted to difficult mountain conditions. The dense woodlands harbor a variety of woodpeckers (Dryocopus martius, Dendrocopos leucotos, D. medius, D. syriacus, Picus canus, P.viridis) and tit species (Lophophanes cristatus, Poecile montanus, Periparus ater, Poecile lugubris). Forest dwellers also include the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the booted eagle (Hieraatus pennatus) while the area, in general, is an important migratory passage for raptors.

Of the birds found on Mount Olympus, 34 species are protected under Annex Ie of Wild Bird’s Directive 2009/147/EEC11, while others are included in the Red Data Book of Endangered Animals in Greece9.

Gallery

Bird species included in the EU Directive 92/43/EEC and the Red Book of Endangered Animals of Greece

Α/ΑSPECIESCOMMON NAMEPROTECTION STATUS
1Ciconia ciconiaWhite storkAnnex Ι, VU
2Ciconia nigraBlack storkAnnex. Ι, EN
3Gyps fulvusGriffon vultureVU/CR
4Αquila chrysaetosGolden eagleAnnex Ι, EN
5Aquila pomarinaLesser spotted eagleAnnex Ι, EN
6Circaetus gallicusShort-toed eagleAnnex Ι, NT
7Hieraaetus pennatusBooted eagleAnnex Ι, EN
8Milvus migransBlack kiteAnnex Ι, CR
9Circus aeruginosusWestern marsh harrierAnnex Ι, VU
10Circus cyaneusHen harrierAnnex Ι
11Circus pygargusMontagu’s harrierCR
12Buteo rufinusLong-legged buzzardVU
13Pernis apivorusEuropean honey buzzardAnnex Ι
14Accipiter brevipesLevant sparrowhawkAnnex Ι
15Falco naumanniLesster kestrelAnnex Ι, VU
16Falco vespertinusAnnex ΙAnnex Ι
17Falco eleonoraeEleonora’s falconAnnex Ι
18Falco peregrinusPeregrine falconAnnex Ι
19Alectoris graecaRock partridgeAnnex Ι, VU
20Bubo buboEurasian eagle-owlAnnex Ι
21Aegolius funereusBoreal owlAnnex Ι
22Glaucidium passerinumEurasian pygmy owlAnnex Ι
23Caprimulgus europaeusEurasian nightjarAnnex Ι
24Coracias garrulusEuropean rollerAnnex Ι, VU
25Dryocopus martiusBlack woodpeckerAnnex Ι
26Picus canusGrey-headed woodpeckerAnnex Ι, NT
27Dendrocopos leucotusWhite-backed woodpeckerAnnex Ι
28Dendrocopοs mediusSyrian woodpeckerAnnex Ι
29Dendrocopοs syriacusEurasian three-toed woodpeckerAnnex Ι, NT
30Picoides tridactylusWoodlarkAnnex Ι
31Lullula arboreaGreater short-toed larkAnnex Ι
32Calandrella brachydactylaCalandra larkVU
33Melanocorypha calandraTawny pipitAnnex Ι
34Anthus campestrisCollared flycatcherAnnex Ι
35Ficedula albicollisCollared flycatcherAnnex Ι
36Ficedula semitorquataSemi-collared flycatcherAnnex Ι
37Lanius collurioRed-backed shrikeAnnex Ι
38Lanius minorLesser grey shrikeAnnex Ι
39Emberiza hortulanaOrtolan buntingAnnex Ι

CR= Critically endangered

ΕΝ= Endangered

VU= Vulnerable

NT= Near threatened

Explanatory notes

Priority habitats / Species: Natural habitats and species that are in danger of disappearance  for the conservation of which the Community has particular responsibility in view of the proportion of their natural range which falls within its territory. They are denoted by an asterisk (*) in Annexes I and II and special measures apply to them.

Annex I Habitat types of EU Habitat’s Directive 92/43/EEC: Natural habitat types of community interest whose conservation requires the designation of special areas of conservation.

Annex II Species of EU Habitat’s Directive 92/43/EEC: Animal and plant species of community interest whose conservation requires the designation of special areas of conservation.

d Annex IV Species of EU Habitat’s Directive 92/43/EEC: Animal and plant species of community interest in need of strict protection.

e Annex Ι species of EU Wild Bird’s Directive 2009/147/ΕEC: Species that are subject to special conservation measures concerning their habitat in order to ensure their survival and reproduction in their area of distribution.

References

«Specialized Environmental Study of Olympus National Park» (2010). Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change, Dept. of Environmental Planning, Division for the Management of the Natural Environment.

Tsitsoni Th., Fotiadis G., ELKE-AUTH (2015). «Surveillance and evaluation of the conservation status of Habitat Types of European Community Interest in the area of jurisdiction of Olympus National Park Management Agency». Phase D’. ONPMA, RDP Macedonia-Thrace 2007-2013.

Council Directive 92/43/EEC “On the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora”.

4  Strid, A. (1980). Wild Flowers of Mount Olympus. Goulandri Natural History Museum, Athens.

Tsitsoni Th., Fotiadis G., Tsitinis G., ELKE-AUTH (2015). «Surveillance and evaluation of the conservation status of Plant species of European Community Interest in the area of jurisdiction of Olympus National Park Management Agency». Phase D’. ONPMA, RDP Macedonia-Thrace 2007-2013.

Sokos, Ch., Birtsas P., Hatzinikos E., Bontzorlos V., Papaspyropoulos, Κ., et al., TECHNOOMOIOSTASI-YLORIKI-LOUVITAKIS (2015). «Surveillance and evaluation of the conservation status of Mammals of European Community Interest in the area of jurisdiction of Olympus National Park Management Agency». Phase D’. ONPMA, RDP Macedonia-Thrace 2007-2013.

Olympus National Park Management Agency (2017). Technical Report 2016 on the Monitoring of Environmental Parameters, Litochoro.

Olympus National Park Management Agency (2016). Technical Report 2015 on the Monitoring of Environmental Parameters, Litochoro.

Legakis, A. & Maragou, P. (2009). The Red Book of Endangered Animals of Greece.Hellenic Zoological Society, Athens.

10 Bousbouras, D. & YETOS Ο.Ε. (2015). «Surveillance and evaluation of the conservation status of Birds of European Community Interest in the area of jurisdiction of Olympus National Park Management Agency».  Phase D’. ONPMA, RDP Macedonia-Thrace 2007-2013.

11 Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 30 November 2009 “On the Conservation of Wild Birds”.

12 Ioannidis I., Papamichail G., GEOANALYSIS Α.Ε. (2015) «Surveillance and evaluation of the conservation status of Amphibians & Reptiles of European Community Interest in the area of jurisdiction of Olympus National Park Management Agency». Phase D’. ONPMA, RDP Macedonia-Thrace 2007-2013.

13 Pamperis, L. (2009).  The Butterflies of Greece. 2nd edition, PAMPERI & ΚΟΑΝ publishers, Athens. Website www.pamperis.gr for updates on the book.

14 Avtzis D., Kaltsas D., TECHNOOMOIOSTASI-YLORIKI-LOUVITAKIS (2015) «Surveillance and evaluation of the conservation status of Invertebrates of European Community Interest in the area of jurisdiction of Olympus National Park Management Agency». Phase D’. ONPMA, RDP Macedonia-Thrace 2007-2013.

15 Presidential Decree 67/1981 (Hellenic Government Gazette No. 23 Α’/30-1-1981) “On the protection of native flora and wild fauna and the procedures for the coordination and control of their research”.

16 Heath, J. (1981) Threatened Rhopalocera (butterflies) of Europe. Council of Europe.

17 Tolmann, T. & Lewington, R. (2008). Collins Butterfly Guide: The Most Complete Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe. 3rd Edition, HarperCollins UK.

18 Speight M.C.D. (1989). Saproxylic invertebrates and their conservation. Council of Europe.